10aex. Buckling Examples • Ex 10a.1 
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Sol'n:
where L_{e} is the effective length of the column. The column is fixedfree for buckling about both x and ydirections. For a fixedfree column, the effective length is: L_{e} = 2L = 4.4 m The column may buckle about the x or y axis. The moment of inertia for a rectangle is: 
The effective length of  
Here: I_{x} = 3.84 x 10^{8}mm^{4} and I_{y} = 2.16 x10^{8} mm^{4} The smaller moment of inertia governs since it results in the smaller Euler Buckling load.


Step 2. Will the column Buckle or Yield? The Buckling Strength is the Euler Buckling Load divided by the area A=bd:
In this our case, the column will buckle. 

The factor of safety is: F.S. = (Failure Load)/(Allowable Load): P_{allow} = P_{cr} / F.S. = (7711 kN)/(1.95)

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